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失代偿(Decompensation)

已有 259 次阅读 2017-12-18 11:09

 decompensation is the functional deterioration of a structure or system that had been previously working with the help of allostatic compensation. Decompensation may occur due to fatiguestress, illness, or old age. When a system is "compensated", it is able to function despite stressors or defects. Decompensation describes an inability to compensate for these deficiencies. It is a general term commonly used in medicine to describe a variety of situations.

For example, cardiac decompensation may refer to the failure of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, after long-standing (previously compensated) vascular disease (see heart failure). Short-term treatment of cardiac decompensation can be achieved through administration of dobutamine, resulting in an increase in heart contractility via an inotropic effect.[1]

Kidney failure can also occur following a slow degradation of kidney function due to an underlying untreated illness; the symptoms of the latter can then become much more severe due to the lack of efficient compensation by the kidney.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decompensation


失代偿
  • 是指机体对你身体的变化不能做出代偿,会造成机体平衡被打破的意思

  • 肝硬化失代偿期就是肝硬化晚期的症状表现,一般指肝硬化发展到一定程度,超出肝功能的代偿能力,临床有明显的病理变化。主要表现为肝功能损害,有门脉高压,脾大,腹水、肝性脑病或上消化道出血,这个时期叫做肝硬化失代偿期。

  • 病因

    引起肝硬化的病因很多,我国以病毒性肝炎最为常见,国外则以酒精中读居多。

    1、病毒性肝炎:主要为乙型病毒性肝炎,其次为丙型或乙型加丁型重叠感染和戊型一般不发展为肝硬化。

    2、日本血吸虫病:我国长江流域血吸虫病流行区多见。反复或长期感染血吸虫病者,,虫卵及其毒性产物在肝脏汇管区刺激结缔组织增生,导致肝纤维化和门脉高压,称为血吸虫病性纤维化。

    3、酒精中毒:长期大量饮酒者,酒精及其中间代谢产物(乙醛)直接损害肝细胞,降低对某些毒性物质的抵抗力,酗酒所致的长期营养失调也对肝脏起一定的损害作用。

    4、药物或化学毒物:长期服用某些药物如双醋酚丁、甲基多吧等可引起中毒性肝炎,最终演变为肝硬化。

    5、胆汁淤积:持续存在肝外胆管阻塞或肝内胆淤积时,高浓度的胆汁酸和胆红素对肝细胞有损害作用,肝细胞变性坏死,纤维组织增生,导致肝硬化。

    6、慢性充血性心力衰竭、缩窄性心包炎、肝静脉或下腔静脉阻塞等使肝脏长期淤血,肝细胞缺氧、坏死和结缔组织增生,最后发展为肝硬化。

    以上一种或多种病因长期作用于肝脏,均可导致肝细胞变性坏死,再生结节形成,弥漫性结缔组织增生,假小叶形成。

  • https://zhidao.baidu.com/question/1113631830244076099.html




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